Editorial: Keep 911 calls open to serve public

The following editorial appeared in The Des Moines Register on April 4, 2017.

Most of us rarely feel the need to call 911 and summon the police, the fire department or an ambulance crew. But when we do, it’s typically a critical situation that serves as a test of whether our emergency services are responsive to the public’s needs.

That’s why civil liberties groups, government oversight organizations and the news media oppose a bill in the Iowa Senate that would keep secret many of the calls citizens make to 911.

The bill, which has already passed the House without a single dissenting vote, seeks to treat all 911 calls involving injuries or medical conditions as confidential “medical records” that are exempt from disclosure under Iowa’s Open Records Law. The secrecy would apply not just to the audio recordings of 911 calls, but also to transcripts and to any video recordings of calls.

What’s more, calls that are either made by a minor or pertain to a minor would also be kept secret. It’s not at all clear what would happen in cases where an adult calls 911 to report a crime and, as is typically the case, the involvement of minors has yet to be established or ruled out. It’s possible that the mere potential for a minor to be the subject of a 911 call would result in the vast majority of such calls being kept confidential, at least initially.

It’s also not clear whether anonymous 911 calls, in which the age of the caller is undetermined, would be forever sealed. (911 systems can pinpoint the location of a call, but not the identity of the person making that call.)

Sen. Jake Chapman, a Republican from Adel, says the bill is intended to protect from disclosure “anything that would be linked with audio or video” of a 911 call, including video from body cameras or security cameras at emergency-dispatch centers. “We have an obligation to our constituents to make sure we’re protecting their medical information,” he says.

The trouble with this reasoning should be obvious: When people call 911, it’s not to relay their medical history to a dispatcher, it’s to request assistance. In the course of that call, they may very well tell the dispatcher someone has collapsed, is suffering chest pains, was shot or stabbed, or is behaving erratically.

But if that constitutes a “medical record” that must be kept confidential to protect Iowans, will the Iowa Legislature next attempt to seal from public view all police reports and court records that refer to injuries and deaths that stem from assault, domestic abuse, police shootings, rape and murder?

This ill-conceived bill was introduced because of three accidental shootings in Tama County that killed and injured adolescent girls. Tape-recorded 911 calls revealed that in one of the cases, a vocal gun-rights advocate accidentally shot and killed his 13-year-old daughter while attempting to show her a rifle — a fact the police never made public.

After Tama County’s emergency management coordinator released the 911 recordings in response to a formal request from the Associated Press, she complained to her state lawmaker that such disclosures invaded the privacy of families and asked for a change in the law.

If anything, the Tama County cases should serve as Exhibit A as to why these recordings should remain public. As tragic as those cases are, they involve shootings that are deserving of public attention, if only so local police, prosecutors, educators, counselors, hunting organizations and gun-safety advocates can take steps to ensure there aren’t more fatalities in the months ahead.

If Iowa’s 911 calls are kept secret, the public may never learn of violent crimes in which no arrest was made, no report was filed, or no officer was dispatched. There will be no way to document what information an officer was given, or was not given, in responding to a call that later resulted in a police shooting. There will be no way to ascertain whether dispatchers acted appropriately in handling calls from citizens. There will be no way to determine whether ambulances were tardy in responding to a call.

Iowans have a right to medical privacy, but they also have a right to know whether the police and dispatch agencies in their community have the expertise, the staff, the equipment and the resources to handle life-and-death calls for assistance.

As demonstrated by decades of past practice, those rights are not in conflict with each other. Both can be protected, but only if 911 calls remain open and accessible to the public.


The public does have a right to know

The 2017 session of the Iowa Legislature has been focused more on government secrecy than any session in many years.

Lawmakers have been moving to make Iowa’s casinos subject to less public scrutiny.

Lawmakers are moving to cut off public access to government records, such as pay, pertaining to undercover law officers.

A proposal to seal many 911 calls as “medical records” — and, potentially, some police body camera and dash camera videos, too, for the same reason — is awaiting debate in the Iowa Senate.

A late proposal would keep most people from inspecting vital records — birth certificates, death certificates, marriage licenses, and divorce decrees — in their local county recorder’s office.

And an especially troubling proposal would make secret the names of people who volunteer to work in the public schools and for other units of government.

That proposal appears to be dead for this session. But until the Legislature adjourns for the year, no proposal truly is dead.

Here is a column about the volunteer secrecy issue that appeared in several Iowa newspapers. The column was written by Randy Evans, executive director of the Iowa Freedom of Information Council.  StrayThoughts_115

Bill would make gov’t volunteers’ names secret

By Jason Clayworth
Des Moines Register

Iowa would make the names of public volunteers confidential under a fast-moving bill that critics warn could protect pedophiles and other criminals who are found working for government and public institutions in nonpaying positions, sometimes with children.

“Just think about that the next time a school volunteer is found to have been involved in molesting a child,” said Randy Evans, executive director of the Iowa Freedom of Information Council and the Register’s former opinion page editor.

“This is about accountability and public safety. The citizens of Iowa have a right to know who is performing government services on their behalf.”

The bill, House File 403, applies to governments and public institutions, including publicly owned hospitals. It does not apply to most nonprofits or businesses, where employee and volunteer information already is typically excluded from the state’s public records law.

It is a product of the lobbying efforts of the Iowa Hospital Association, which contends that public disclosure has a possible “chilling effect” on volunteer efforts. The association and its 118 member hospitals recently voted in favor of adding what would become the 70th exemption to the state’s 50-year-old open records law.

The move is in response to an Iowa Public Information Board ruling last year that forced Crawford County Memorial Hospital to release a list of its driver volunteers.

In that case, Denison resident Richard Knowles was concerned that a volunteer driver — a person Knowles said had access to children and dependent adults — had a sex abuse record involving minors.

The volunteer’s public record does not reflect such a conviction. But Knowles contends the individual was part of a case that has since been expunged from public records.

Crawford County’s hospital spent months fighting the records request. CEO Bill Bruce and hospital foundation director Donald Luensmann alleged in court documents that Knowles was trying to intimidate or harass them and hold its volunteers “up to public ridicule.”

Unlike public employees, volunteers do not have an expectation that their information will be disclosed, said Scott McIntyre, vice president of communications for the hospital association.

Iowa’s public hospitals had at least 7,799 auxiliary workers or volunteers in 2015 who contributed more than 455,000 hours of their time each year, according to the most recent data available from his group.

“Some people construe this as just a bunch of lobbyists doing their thing, but we represent what the hospitals have directed us to do through our counsels and board, and that’s why we are advocating for this,” McIntyre said.

Rep. Kevin Koester, R-Ankeny, is leading the bill, which survived a legislative deadline this month by being voted out of committee.

Koester is a longtime advocate of government transparency and has been a speaker at multiple events hosted by the Iowa Newspaper Association and Iowa Watch, a non-profit investigative news site.

He said he initially moved forward with the bill over concerns about how the Public Information Board’s ruling last year could affect future volunteer efforts.

But Koester acknowledged critics’ concerns over the bill and said he is working on a provision that would require those seeking volunteer records to cite the reason they want the information. The Iowa Newspaper Association, which opposes the bill, has expressed concern over that proposed amendment.

“I know this amendment might not be the cat’s meow,” Koester said, noting that he continues to review the effort with Rep. Vicki Lensing, D-Iowa City.

Lensing advocated for legislation called for by Gov. Terry Branstad that formed the Iowa Public Information Board in 2012. She declined Friday to comment on the bill that would make government volunteer names confidential, saying she needs to further review the issue.

Evans, of the Iowa Freedom of Information Council, cited investigations that unveiled the discipline of volunteer EMTs — some who were accused of stealing from patients — as another example of why transparency in government is paramount to public safety.

“If you don’t know who the volunteers are, the public has no way of knowing whether there are people working for them who shouldn’t have that kind of access to the public,” Evans said.

Journalists guide to Iowa courts now available

Reporters who cover Iowa courts have a new resource that will help them access electronic court records.

The new resource is a guide for using the Iowa Court Information System (ICIS), a computer program created when the Iowa Judicial Branch began converting court records from paper to electronic.

The ICIS program was designed for Iowa news media in collaboration with the Iowa Newspaper Association to give reporters the ability to search for court filings on a daily basis or within a specified range of dates. Users are charged 50 cents per page for printouts listing newly filed court documents.

The new guide explains how to find the program on these terminals, how to log on and how to conduct a search. The guide also has a list of user names and passwords for logging into the program on public terminals at individual Iowa county courthouses.

Grant Rodgers of The Des Moines Register regularly uses the ICIS program. “I use it every few weeks to sort through new civil lawsuits that have been filed in Polk County. How often I do it varies depending on what’s happening.”

Jared Strong of The Daily Times Herald in Carroll said, “We use this in four counties on a weekly basis. In Carroll, I run them on Wednesdays for our weekly roundup of what’s been disposed of in court. The other papers we own use them in the same way, though on different days.”

The new guide was collaborative effort of the Iowa Judicial Branch, the Iowa Freedom of Information Council and the Iowa Newspaper Association.

The guide can be found here. A Guide to using the Iowa Court Information System search program[5906]

Court declines to review open meetings ruling

By Rox Laird
On Brief: Iowa’s Appellate Blog

In December the Iowa Court of Appeals ruled that the Harrison County Board of Supervisors violated the Iowa open meetings law.

Last week, the Iowa Supreme Court declined to review the lower court’s decision.

That leaves in place the lower court’s ruling that the Harrison County supervisors violated the law when they twice went into closed session to discuss the threat of litigation. It also leaves in place the Appeals Court’s order that the three supervisors each pay $200 in fines and split the plaintiff’s trial and appellate fees estimated at nearly $25,000.

The supervisors were acting in their capacity as trustees for an agricultural drainage district at the time of the closed meetings. The topic of discussion was a threat of litigation in the wake of a dispute over the condition of a levee maintained by the drainage district. Two Harrison County farmers brought the open meetings lawsuit.

The open meetings law provides an exception for closed sessions “[t]o discuss strategy with counsel in matters that are presently in litigation or where litigation is imminent where its disclosure would be likely to prejudice or disadvantage the position of the governmental body in that litigation.”

No legal counsel was present at either closed session, however.

The Court of Appeals also rejected the supervisors’ argument that there was no violation of the law because the meetings were closed on the advice of legal counsel. That’s because the law requires that such advice from counsel be “given in writing” or “memorialized in the minutes of the meeting at which a formal oral opinion was given.”

In this case, however, the supervisors did not receive a written opinion from counsel and “no counsel directly provided oral advice to the trustees at any time before or during the meeting.”

Fighting to help you gain access to public records

By Carol Hunter
Des Moines Register executive editor

Casino gambling is not just any business.

Last year, gamblers plunked $13.7 billion into slot machines in Iowa, and casinos kept $1.3 billion of that.

Iowans know that because the Iowa Racing and Gaming Commission maintains detailed public records about casino operations.

Casinos must obtain licenses from the commission, whose mission is “to protect the public and to assure the integrity of licensed facilities.” There’s so much money at stake that the state requires precautions to ward off potential infiltration by organized crime or other swindlers.

But two bills moving forward in the Legislature would keep secret some audit information now available to the public. Although basic information such as the amount wagered would still be available, the industry is pushing confidentiality for other information for competitive reasons, saying it amounts to trade secrets. Trade secrets are typically exempt from Iowa’s open records law, but again, casinos aren’t a typical industry.

As a recent Register editorial put it: “Gambling has the potential to wreak havoc on lives and communities, which is why we require them to operate in the light.”

The Register is dedicated to protecting the public’s right to know, through news coverage of attempts to keep information secret, through the bully pulpit of our editorial page and when necessary through litigation.

This work isn’t about making reporters’ and editors’ jobs easier. It’s about upholding the principle that the public should have access to records that the government maintains on the public’s behalf.

State law at first glance appears straightforward in protecting public access: “Every person shall have the right to examine and copy a public record and to publish or otherwise disseminate a public record or the information contained in a public record.”

But through the years, special interests have piled on a list of exceptions, now numbering 69.

“In spite of government officials’ pronouncements about supporting transparency, they are constantly looking for ways to shut the public out,” said Randy Evans, executive director of the Iowa Freedom of Information Council and a former Register opinion editor.

The Register and other open-records advocates wage a never-ending battle to ward off more exceptions and to enforce existing provisions.

For example, state law clearly bars government agencies from keeping lawsuit settlements secret. Yet for months, Crawford County Memorial Hospital, a public hospital owned by the county’s taxpayers, refused to release how much it paid a widower of a patient whose death was blamed on a botched colonoscopy.

It took legal action by the Carroll Daily Times Herald and the Freedom of Information Council to force the hospital to disclose the $500,000 settlement.

Another ongoing dispute involves the names of passengers on university planes piloted by Iowa State University President Steven Leath. A special state audit was conducted into his use of the planes, and he has admitted he flew them more than necessary, but the university refuses to release passenger names. The Register is pursuing their release in a complaint with the Iowa Public Information Board.

Also of concern:

  • A bill is working its way through the Legislature that would make confidential the names of government volunteers. That could conceivably include volunteer firefighters, EMTs and people who do volunteer work with children. Such volunteer work is laudable, but the public should know volunteers’ identities and critical information such as criminal history.
  • The University of Iowa is citing federal copyright law to block release of video its employees shot during the 2008 floods.
  • Police departments across Iowa are now using body cameras to record video of officers’ interactions with the public, a welcome step toward greater transparency and accountability, which I believe in most instances will show officers have acted responsibly. But individual agencies are developing a patchwork of policies on when video will be released. With narrow exceptions to protect the identity of crime victims and informants, state law should require that body-camera video be made public. Otherwise, its potential value to help determine the truth and to build trust in police agencies will be lost.

“Government entities do not belong to the people who work for government,” Evans said. “The universities and state and local government belong to the people of Iowa.”

And the people of Iowa deserve access to the records produced by their government.

To learn more

  • The Iowa Freedom of Information Council can answer questions about Iowa’s open records and open meetings laws: IowaFOICouncil@gmail.com, or 515-745-0041.
  • The Iowa Public Information Board has easy-to-use forms for asking questions or filing complaints: www.ipib.iowa.gov/file-complaint

W.D.M. skirts meetings law with phone calls

By Kim Norvell
Des Moines Register

West Des Moines’ city manager circumvented the “intent of the open meetings law” when he called City Council members to gauge where they stand on a controversial Statehouse bill that would dismantle water utility boards, according to the director of the Iowa Freedom of Information Council.

City Manager Tom Hadden said he “canvassed” council members one on one before directing the city’s lobbyist to register in support of House File 484, which would directly affect West Des Moines Water Works.

Hadden said the phone calls met Iowa’s open meetings requirement because there was no formal vote on an action item.

But Randy Evans, executive director of the Iowa Freedom of Information Council, said the city manager’s telephone poll is “a clear-cut case” of trying to get around the state law.

“The government of West Des Moines belongs to the citizens of West Des Moines,” he said. “It doesn’t belong to the city manager and the City Council members, and they have a duty to let the citizens of West Des Moines in on the process.”

Hadden said his canvass is a normal practice during the Legislative session because bills can be introduced and passed quickly.

“Things come so quick that a lot of time there’s no time for formal council action,” he said. “It’s a moving target. As the legislation moves forward and things change, we could take it to neutral or opposed before it’s all said and done.”

Iowa’s open meetings law requires cities to provide 24 hours’ notice before meeting in a public session. The bill was introduced Feb. 15 and amendments were approved Feb. 28 after legislators received input from area city managers and mayors. The city’s lobbyist registered in support of the bill March 2. The bill has since passed out of committee and is eligible for floor debate.

Councilman Kevin Trevillyan said he disagrees with phone polling. It strips the opportunity to discuss issues with other council members — a practice that could potentially change others’ minds, he said.

Trevillyan, who works as an engineering technician for West Des Moines Water Works, said decisions on how to direct lobbyists to register should be debated in public.

“(Without meeting in public) you can’t have open discussion. You can’t lay everything on the table,” Trevillyan said. “In my mind, consensus is the same thing as a vote.”

If the bill were to become law, Trevillyan would become and city employee and would no longer be able to serve on the City Council. He said the city manager did not call him directly about the issue. He says he’s against the bill because it would not be good for the citizens of West Des Moines.

Two complaints were filed with the Iowa Public Information Board in recent weeks alleging Des Moines violated the open meetings law when it met to discuss pending legislation. Des Moines registered support for HF 484 after that meeting.
Susan Huppert, vice chair of the Des Moines Water Works Board of Trustees, said a one-sentence agenda that simply read “2017 Legislative Issues” was a “deliberate attempt to not allow input from the public” on the issue.

The Iowa Public Information Board has not received any complaints on West Des Moines’ action.

Evans said he’s concerned that the city manager’s poll will set a precedent. He said it may be easier for the city to take this approach, but Iowa’s open records law recognizes there are emergencies and allows for telephonic meetings if the public can listen in.

“If the city manager can poll on whether to register for or against a piece of legislation, it would appear that the city manager could do the same thing for any controversial topic that is coming before the city council,” Evans said.

Iowa ‘sunshine’ law handbook now available

The most popular guide to Iowa’s public meetings and public records law has been updated for 2017 and is now available for purchase.

The Iowa Open Meetings, Open Records Handbook is published by the Iowa Freedom of Information Council and is the go-to resource for government officials, journalists and interested citizens.

The handbook contains the complete text of Chapter 21 (the public meetings law), Chapter 22 (the public records law) and Chapter 23 (the Iowa Public Information Board law).

In addition, the handbook contains helpful questions and answers, rules of thumb to guide government officials and citizens, and other resources people can use.

Copies of the handbook are $2 each and can be ordered from the Iowa FOI Council in three ways. The price includes shipping.

  • Email: IowaFOICouncil@gmail.com
  • Postal mail: P.O. Box 8002, Des Moines, IA 50301
  • Telephone: 515.745.0041

Payment in advance is not required. An invoice will be sent with each order.

Thousands of copies of the handbook are distributed each year as part of the FOI Council’s public education efforts to help officials and the public understand the terms of the state’s “sunshine” laws.

Judge’s order forces hospital to comply with law

District Judge Steven J. Adreasen issued an order on Friday, Feb. 24, directing the county hospital in Denison to release the settlement agreement that ended a medical malpractice lawsuit against the hospital.

The order came after a court hearing requested by the Carroll Daily Times Herald. Collin Davison, an attorney from Mason City, represented the newspaper and the Iowa Freedom of Information Council during the hearing.

The settlement grew out of the death of Carole Christiansen, who underwent a colonoscopy at the Crawford County Memorial Hospital in Denison.

Christiansen’s estate sued the hospital, and the case ended with a negotiated settlement between the estate and the hospital’s insurance carrier.

Hospital administrator Bill Bruce had refused numerous requests from journalists and a Denison resident to release a copy of the settlement agreement. He cited as justification the probate judge’s order sealing the contents of Mrs. Christiansen’s probate court file.

Iowa’s public records law specifically prohibits secret settlements.

Chapter 22.13 of the Iowa Code says, “When a government body reaches a final, binding, written settlement agreement that resolves a legal dispute claiming monetary damages, equitable relief, or a violation of a rule or statute, the government body shall, upon request and to the extend allowed under applicable law, prepare a brief summary of the resolution of the dispute indicating the identity of the parties involved, the nature of the dispute, and the terms of the settlement, including any payments made by or on behalf of the government body and any actions to be taken by the government body. … The settlement agreement and any required summary shall be a public record.”

Randy Evans, the executive director of the Iowa Freedom of Information Council, said in a statement after the court hearing on Friday:

“The Iowa Freedom of Information Council is grateful that after 10 months of ignoring its legal obligations, the Crawford County Memorial Hospital has finally released the terms of the settlement in the litigation growing out of the tragic death of Mrs. Christiansen.

“We just regret that the FOI Council and the Daily Times Herald had to go to the expense of hiring a lawyer to achieve what Iowa’s public records says in crystal-clear language — that government entities like the Crawford County hospital cannot enter into secret settlements in lawsuits.”

Evans continued: “The settlement was reached with the Christiansen family last April. Her estate was not closed and sealed until June. That provided two months for the hospital to release the settlement documents. But it did not.

“Once the documents in the probate court file were sealed, the hospital took the inexplicable position that the order sealing the court file trumped the open records law and documents that were in the possession of the hospital. The probate file included details about the Christiansens’ real estate holdings, but the Crawford County Recorder’s Office never tried to put the family’s real estate records in the courthouse off limits to the public.

“Iowa’s law that prohibits secret settlements involving government was written by the Legislature because lawmakers were keenly aware that the public should not be kept in the dark about these matters — even if the details prove embarrassing to government entities.”

Here is the Carroll Daily Times Herald’s report on the court hearing and settlement agreement:

DTH wins court fight
for secret settlement details

The Denison hospital revealed a $500,000 wrongful-death settlement on Friday that it had kept secret for months after the Daily Times Herald threatened to take legal action against the hospital to force its disclosure.

Crawford County Memorial Hospital and its insurer paid the money to the estate of Carole Christiansen, a 67-year-old Arion woman who died of complications from a botched colonoscopy at the hospital in 2014.

As part of the agreement, the hospital paid $100 to the estate “to keep the existence and terms of this settlement and the underlying negotiations confidential,” even though public entities are barred by law from engaging in confidential settlements.

Bill Bruce, the hospital’s chief executive, said this morning that he doesn’t know whether a hospital employee drafted the agreement or reviewed it before it was approved. Further, he refused to ask his employees whether any of them reviewed it.

“I don’t have a need to do that research,” he said. “I didn’t write it. I can tell you that. Bill Bruce didn’t write it.”

Brad Bonner, the hospital’s general counsel, did not respond this morning to an email asking whether he had reviewed the settlement before its approval.

A judge approved the settlement in April and sealed it from public view. Since then, hospital officials have denied multiple requests from residents and reporters to reveal the details of the settlement and claimed the judge’s order barred them from doing so, even though the confidentiality clause contained an exception that allows its public release to comply with Iowa law.

Bruce said he was not aware of the exception and has repeatedly dismissed claims that he was violating the state’s open records law: “We’re caught in the middle on this.”

The Times Herald filed a court motion in December that asked a judge to direct the hospital to release the settlement, and the Iowa Freedom of Information Council joined the fray and paid for an attorney to represent the newspaper. On Friday, a judge issued an order — that had been agreed upon by the hospital, Christiansen’s husband and the Times Herald — to release the settlement.

“The Iowa Freedom of Information Council is grateful that after 10 months of ignoring its legal obligations, the Crawford County Memorial Hospital has finally released the terms of the settlement in the litigation growing out of the tragic death of Mrs. Christiansen,” said Randy Evans, executive director of the council.

“We just regret that the FOI Council and the Daily Times Herald had to go to the expense of hiring a lawyer to achieve what Iowa’s public records law says in crystal-clear language — that government entities like the Crawford County hospital cannot enter into secret settlements in lawsuits.”

The hospital has a recent history of secrecy. It fought for a year to keep the names of volunteers who drive patients to and from the hospital confidential but relented in July when the Iowa Public Information Board ruled the names were a public record.

A Denison resident had requested the names because one of the volunteers was a convicted sex offender.

The hospital also has refused to provide full supporting documents for its board of trustees meetings in advance of those meetings. The law does not require it to, but other local government entities publish the documents online several days in advance of their meetings.

“Among the more important charges of a newspaper is holding your government officials accountable,” Times Herald co-owner Douglas Burns said. “We take seriously our responsibility to drag public documents from the darkness when needed. In this era of cost-cutting and slashes to newsrooms, far too many media organizations are looking the other way on matters like this instead of directing limited resources toward meeting a solemn responsibility.

“Our readers and the west-central Iowa public can rest assured that the Daily Times Herald, as long as it is owned by this family, will remain a vigilant watchdog of your tax dollars and all government bodies. As much as anything we’ve done in recent years, this episode demonstrates that.”

Evans also pledged to wage future fights in court for the release of public records when necessary.

“Iowa’s law that prohibits secret settlements involving government was written by the Legislature because lawmakers were keenly aware that the public should not be kept in the dark about these matters — even if the details prove embarrassing to government entities,” he said.

Hicks moves into FOI Council presidency

Lynn Hicks, the opinion editor of The Des Moines Register, will become president of the Iowa Freedom of Information Council for 2017.

He replaces Dave Busiek, news director of KCCI-TV in Des Moines.

Zack Kucharski, executive editor of the Cedar Rapids Gazette, moves up to first vice president for 2017.

Keith Bliven, news director of KTIV-TV in Sioux City, joins the Iowa FOI Council’s board of trustees as the organization’s second vice president.

The Iowa Freedom of Information Council is a 40-year-old education and advocacy organization made up of journalists, lawyers, educators and other citizens committed to open and transparent government in Iowa.

The council publishes the Iowa Open Meetings, Open Records Handbook, a guide to the state’s open-government laws. Several thousand copies of the handbook are distributed statewide each year.

The council also is designated by the Iowa Supreme Court to coordinate the state’s Expanded News Media Coverage program, which allows photographers and other digital journalists to work inside state courtrooms under most circumstances.